A brief history of the islamic republic of iran

Iran at the Turn of the Century At the outset of the 20th century, Iran was embroiled in a bifurcated struggle. On the one hand, Iranians struggled to maintain their national independence in the face of growing colonial pressures. Ultimately, in Augustthe two great powers decided to carve Iran up into spheres of influence; the agreement sealed Russian supremacy in the north and British supremacy in the south of Iran.

A brief history of the islamic republic of iran

A brief history of the islamic republic of iran

Unlike many other Middle East countries, Iran managed to remain independent throughout much of its history. The Bahai and Zoroastrian faiths originated in Iran. SinceIran is an Islamic Republic.

It also borders on Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east, and Turkey to the west.

A brief history of the islamic republic of iran

Click for large map Iran has a semi-arid climate for the most part, but it is extremely rich in natural resources. Additionally, it has considerable quantities of fairly low grade uranium. By he had eliminated all his rivals, and had retaken former Iranian territories in Georgia and the Caucasus.

Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Ray. In he was formally crowned as Shah, but he was assassinated in and was succeeded by his nephew, Fath Ali Shah. Iran suffered major military defeats in both wars, signing the Treaty of Golestan inand the Treaty of Turkmanchai inand ceding to Russia Georgia, the north Caucasus, and the eventually the the entire area north of the Aras River, which includes present day Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Fath Ali Shah died in and was succeed by Mohammad Shah. He died in and was succeeded by Naser o-Din Shah. Naser o-Din Shah was the ablest of the Qajar rules.

He introduced Western science, technology, and educational methods and began the modernization of Iran. He tried to play off the imperial powers, Great Britain and Russia, to preserve Iran's independence, but he was not able to prevent Britain and Russia from encroaching into regions of traditional Iranian influence.

In Britain prevented Iran from reasserting control over Herat, and helped make Herat part of Afghanistan. By Russia had conquered present-day Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, bringing Russia's frontier to Iran's northeastern borders and severing historic Iranian connections to Bukhara and Samarqand.

Trade concessions by Iran put the Iranian economy largely under British control. Mozaffar o-Din Shah was a weak and ineffectual ruler.

He quickly spent two large loans from Russia, partly on trips to Europe. Public anger was fueled by the shah's willingness to grant concessions to Europeans in return for generous payments to him and his officials. The shah's failed to respond to protests by the religious establishment, the merchants, and other classes and instituted Repressive measures.

In August the shah was forced to issue a decree promising a constitution.

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In October an elected assembly convened and drew up a constitution that provided for strict limitations on royal power, an elected parliament, or Majles, with wide powers to represent the people, and a government with a cabinet subject to confirmation by the Majles.

The Shah signed the constitution on December 30,but died five days later. Supplementary Fundamental Laws approved in provided, within limits, for freedom of press, speech, and association, and for security of life and property.

The Constitutional Revolution marked the end of the medieval period in Iran Iranians are very proud of this event However, but the constitution remained to a large extent a dead letter.

Brief History of Iran

Mohammad Ali Shah, son of Mozaffar o-Din took office in He arrested many of the deputies, and closed down the assembly.

Resistance to the Shah, however, coalesced in several cities, and elsewhere. In Julyconstitutional forces marched from Rasht and Esfahan to Tehran, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. The ex-Shah went into exile in Russia. The upheavals of the Constitutional Revolution and civil war had undermined stability and trade.

The ex-Shah, with Russian support, landed troops in Iran in July in an attempt to regain his throne. The hope that the Constitutional Revolution would inaugurate a new era of independence from the great powers ended when, under the Anglo-Russian Agreement ofBritain and Russia agreed to divide Iran into spheres of influence.

The Russians were to enjoy exclusive right to pursue their interests in the northern sphere, the British in the south and east; both powers would be free to compete for economic and political advantage in a neutral sphere in the center.

A crisis was precipitated when Morgan Shuster, a United States administrator hired as treasurer general by the Persian government to reform its finances, sought to collect taxes from powerful officials under Russian protection.

The Russians issued an ultimatum demanding Shuster's dismissal, Russian troops, already in the country, moved to occupy the capital.Since its establishment nearly forty years ago, the Islamic Republic of Iran has maintained a hostile stance towards Israel.

::| Culture of IRAN |:: Iran, a Brief History

The phrase “wiping Israel off the face of the earth” has always been a critical component of the regime’s political ideology. Since , Iran is an Islamic Republic. Iran is situated east of Iraq, beyond the Tigris River, Shatt Al-Arab waterway and east of the Persian Gulf, across from Saudi Arabia.

To the north, it borders on former Soviet Central Asian countries including Armenia Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea. A chronology of key events in Iran's history, from the first Persian Empire to the present.

Homepage. the first since the founding of the Islamic Republic in to include women. The history of Iran, The Safavids ruled from to (experiencing a brief restoration from to ) and at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, An early event in the history of the Islamic republic that had a long-term impact was the Iran hostage crisis.

In , people of Iran decided to make a revolution and establish an Islamic Republic. In Saddam attacked Iran and tried to repeat the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century. He promised to be in Tehran just in two weeks. The Islamic Republic of Iran is an Islamic theocracy headed by a Supreme Leader.

Its constitution was approved in and amended in Jaafari (Usuli) school of thought is the official religion.

Brief History of Iran - New York Essays