Avogadro graduated in jurisprudence in but did not practice law until after receiving his doctorate in ecclesiastical law four years later. In he became secretary to the prefecture of Eridano. Beginning in Avogadro privately pursued studies in mathematics and physicsand he focused his early research on electricity.
Check new design of our homepage! Amedeo Avogadro Although he did not use the word 'atom', Avogadro was one of the first to consider that perhaps particles were composed of molecules and that molecules in their turn were composed of the simpler atoms.
Amedeo, a worthy son of this worthy father, got a baccalaureate in Jurisprudence at just sixteenand later, at the age of twenty, became a Doctor of Ecclesiastical Law.
As expected, he joined the family profession and was a successful lawyer for the next five years. He was even made the Secretary to the Prefecture of the Eridano Department in Then, diverted by his long-standing interests in Science and Mathematics, he began to spend more time in studying these subjects, and, inintrigued by the research of Alessandro Volta, also looked into the subject of electricity in association with Felice, his brother.
The two of them made such progress in their scientific endeavors, that the very next year they both received nominations to Turin's Royal Academy of Sciences.
From here on the Law Profession was sidelined - although he remained involved in Public Affairs - and his principal occupation hereafter was to be science. It was while at Vericelli, inthat Avogadro wrote Amedeo avogadro hypothesis that is now famous as Avogadro's Law. It was based on the French Chemist Joseph Louis Amedeo avogadro Law of Combining Volumes, 'Gases under equal conditions of temperature and pressure react with one another in volume ratios of simple whole numbers'and stated that 'Equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules'.
This implied that the relative molecular weights of any two gases would be equal to the ratio of the gas densities under the same temperature and pressure. Avogadro also concluded that simple gases were composed of combinations of two or more atoms, not single atoms as was generally thought then - although he did not employ the term 'atom', he was one of the first to consider that perhaps particles were composed of molecules, and that molecules in turn were composed of the simpler atoms.
This resolved the controversy of Gay-Lussac's Law - it could now be understood why the water vapor volume was double that of the oxygen volume used in its formation as had been reported by Gay-Lussac - it was because the oxygen molecule split into two atoms during the formation of water vapor.
John Dalton had wrongly assumed that a simple compound of two elements could only contain one atom of each and, as he had equated an atom with a particle, he could not see how one oxygen particle could bring forth two water particles.
Berzelius, on the other hand, believed that compounds formed due to the cohesion between positive electrical charges and negative electrical charges, and so, of course, a molecule with two similarly-charged atoms as in the case of oxygen was just out of the question - they would repel each other after all, wouldn't they?
Dalton and Berzelius were the two leading Chemists of the period, hence, their opinions carried a lot of weight. Avogadro, on the other hand, was a modest, somewhat reclusive personality, who was not associated with the important Scientific Societies in England, France, Germany, Sweden, and moreover was then practically unknown outside Italy.
His paper was also not supported by experimental evidence. Nearly fifty years later, at the Karlsruhe Conference ofanother Italian Scientist Stanislau Cannizzaro proved the importance of the theory in determining both molar and atomic masses.
Avogadro's hypothesis led to the idea of gram molecular weight and so the number of molecules contained in the gram molecular weight of a substance was named Avogadro's Number in his honor.
Avogadro's Number N is a fundamental constant that helps Scientists to calculate the exact amounts of pure substances produced in a reaction, and this constant was actually first determined by an Austrian Scientist named Josef Loschmidt and later other Scientists like James Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, J.
Perrin, Rutherford, Geiger, R. Birge, calculated its value more accurately. The value of N has been determined as 6. This is an extraordinarily large number, quite beyond comprehension actually. To get back to Avogadro however, he remained unacknowledged during his lifetime, but undeterred by the general disregard of his hypothesis, he kept on with his research and later published many other important papers.
The most important of these was his four-volumed tome on Physics 'Fisica dei corpi ponderabili' He became a full member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin in and also became the first Professor of Mathematical Physics at Turin University ina position he retained for the rest of his career, except for the period between andwhen, owing to his involvement in the political unrest against the King of Sardinia, he was temporarily discharged.
Reinstated inhe remained until his retirement in Avogadro died on the 9 July His family included his wife Felicita and six sons.Avogadros konstant, også kaldt Avogadros tal, er en fysisk konstant, der angiver antallet af atomer eller molekyler i et mol af et stof.
The Avogadro constant (symbols: L, N A) is the number of particles (usually atoms or molecules) in one mole of a given substance.
Its value is equal to 29 (27) × 10 23 mol −1. The constant was named after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro.. The measurement of Avogadro's constant was refined in to × 10 23 ± . Avogadro’s number, number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its molecular weight in grams), equal to × 10 The units may be electrons, atoms, ions, or molecules, depending on the nature of the substance and the character of the reaction (if any).
See also Avogadro’s law. Avogadro's hypothesis was key to solving many problems facing the chemical sciences in the s. But his idea was initially rejected. Colin Russell reports. Amedeo Avogadro: Amedeo Avogadro, Italian mathematical physicist who showed in what became known as Avogadro’s law that, under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules.
Learn more about Avogadro’s life and career.