What is the Arabic Alphabet? The Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters, reading from right to left. Shown below are the basic forms of the letters.
However, an elite group of traders who travelled from such towns as Makkah, Yathrib, Khaybar and from Yemen to the centres of ancient civilizations, including Syria, Mesopotamia and Egypt, were open to outside influences.
A handful of traders were familiar with reading and writing of one sort or another. Among them were members of the Quraysh tribe and it was they who brought foreign influences into Arabian trading centres.
Nevertheless, most of the population of Arabia were pastoralists who often quarrelled among themselves. It was only during the pilgrimage season to Makkah that fighting was abandoned by common consent.
On the whole the Arabian environment did not encourage the growth of civilized values. It is hard to see how such a primitive people could emerge from centuries of backwardness to a level of culture.
The march of the Arabs from darkness to light is one of the conundrums of history and few historians have adequately explained the phenomena. By harnessing their latent physical and spiritual power, the Arabs somehow reconstructed their own lives. Having begun with a tabula rasa, they achieved an astonishing advancement in their social, political and intellectual life within a very short time.
How did they do this?
Incredible though it may seem to any uninitiated student of history, these Arabs not only changed their way of thinking but also their view of the world and their role in it. Hardly had they time to imbibe the teachings of a visionary like the Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah than they became a powerful conquering force that had won an empire within fifty years of their mentor's death.
How could such a people have made any contribution towards the progress of any science, be it natural, physical or social? Two manuscripts of the Quran: Historians must find an answer to these questions and to others which may arise from them.
From a historical point of view, it would seem absurd to talk of the origin of any form of Islamic sciences within a century or two of the rise of Islam. How and where do we begin such a discussion? To find an answer to the phenomenal rise of Islam and the Islamic sciences, one looks to the role of Islam in Europe, when Arabic books on science and philosophy were translated into Latin in the Arab Kingdoms of Spain, Sicily and southern Italy and the effect of this development on European society in the 15th and 16th centuries CE.
If we proceed from these preliminaries to a proper discussion of the rise of Islamic sciences, we must take a broader view of world history. In my opinion, the origins of Islamic sciences can be traced back partly to the scientific heritage of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, Persia and India, partly to the inspiration derived from the Qur'an and the Prophetic words of the Prophet Muhammad hadithand also partly to the intellectual and creative genius of Muslim scientists, thinkers and philosophers during that extraordinary five hundred years of Islamic history 7thth centuries CE.
It would seem that we need a satisfactory explanation to make sense of the development of Islamic science and the intellectual roots of Islamic civilization.
In trying to approach such a subject we are entering into a potentially controversial area and one that requires a good deal of research and perseverance. Three essential factors need to be analyzed: We may refer to these three essential sources of Islamic science one after another.
In doing so, one could not ignore the relevance of Islamic sciences to medieval Europe . Mesopotamia Let us recall the heritage of science and technology that preceded the advent of Islam in the 7th century CE and what might have been inherited by the Arabs along with the rest of mankind.
Sailing ships were known as early as BCE; the wheel, which was invented in Mesopotamia, was used by potters, and by armies for transportation. Standard weights were used in commerce based on the shekel of 8. The Sumerians, who were advanced in astronomy, made star catalogues in the 2nd millennium BCE, identified the Zodiac, and used a month solar calendar along with a day lunar calendar; but in the 3rd millennium BCE regularly used a day calendar, which had been adopted, in a modified form, by Jews and Muslims.
The Babylonians recorded a solar eclipse as early as BCE and devised an instrument to detect when a star or planet was due to appear in the south. Some of these achievements resulted from developments in mathematics, notably by the application of multiplication tables.
Solutions to quadratic and cubic equations were achieved; theorems governing plane geometry were created, together with a system of sixty for measuring time.
Positional notation was in use in Mesopotamia four thousand years ago. The Assyrians used water clocks. Medicine and surgery also developed in Mesopotamia, where tooth filling was practiced, physicians established an important profession, and incompetent surgeons were liable to compensate patients in the event of error.
Lamps made of stone and pottery were used in ancient Mesopotamia. Although ploughshares were used in Canaan ancient Palestinethe Mesopotamians used a primitive form of plough called an ard, which has been found in Uruk, and the irrigation system caused a revolution in Mesopotamian agriculture.
Metallurgy also developed in this region of the Middle East. A wide range of advances in Mesopotamian civilization became part of the common heritage of mankind.
Egyptian medicine, practised by the priests in the 2nd millennium BCE, was the most sophisticated in ancient times, and some carvings of about BCE depict a surgical operation in progress.Learn Arabic for free online. Download free audio lessons to your computer or mp3 player and start learning Arabic instantly.
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Contextual translation of "essay" into Arabic. Human translations with examples: فرضك, حاول, مقال, مقالة, مقا!, drink, مقالتي, مقالتك.
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Indiana University Press was founded in and is today recognized internationally as a leading academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences. Books shelved as arabic-short-stories: The Arabian Nights by Anonymous, الظل الكبير by سميرة عزام, وقصص أخرى by سميرة عزام, عالم ليس لنا by Ghassan Kanaf.
1. Arabic Essay Topics Saudi Arabia: Two letters. language. But coming to Saudi Arabia the situation was quite the opposite.
Arabic is the basic means of communication and it is a self-contained language i.e. a language that has its writing system and an old tradition of literature.