These data suggest that legislation was driven by a national agenda, and that the pattern of which laws were passed was based not on where they were economically necessary, but on where they were politically feasible. Understanding national legislative patterns The state-by-state pattern of public employment cuts, pension rollbacks, and union busting makes little sense from an economic standpoint. But it becomes much more intelligible when understood as a political phenomenon. In Wisconsin, for instance, long-standing restrictions that limited corporate political spending were ruled invalid.
These articles were selected to demonstrate the range of social work research related to poverty, its causes, and its impact on people and related social systems.
This issue focuses on Latino poverty. Social Thought 19 2: The following articles are listed in order of year of publication, from to Welfare recipiency and savings outcomes in individual development accounts.
Social Work Research28 3 The authors examine how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts IDAsa structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives.
A Heckman two-step regression analysis suggests that, after controlling for a variety of program and participant characteristics, welfare recipiency, either before or at the time of enrollment in IDAs, is not correlated with program exits or savings outcomes.
The findings suggest that welfare recipiency does not seem to affect savings performance. Child care services in the JOBS program.
The Jumpstart Our Business Strength JOBS legislation reflected the expectations that mothers, even those with young children, should participate in the labor force to increase their level of economic self-sufficiency. This change in expectations was accompanied by the recognition that, to fulfill these expectations, mothers needed access to child care services.
In implementing the JOBS program and the associated child care provisions, states fulfilled their obligations to assure that child care was available and provided to at least enough JOBS participants to meet the federally mandated requirements for participation.
However, such child care issues as funding, access, quality, and transportation emerged with the implementation of the JOBS program and can be anticipated to be significant concerns under the new welfare program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families TANF.
Additionally, under TANF, work expectations have been expanded but without a commitment to ensure child care services for those required to participate. Journal of Aging and Social Policy ,16 1 Is it more effective to reduce poverty among the elderly by increasing the benefits paid by the Supplemental Security Income SSI program or by increasing eligibility for the program?
At given program cost levels, the authors compare the potential reduction in poverty from increasing benefit levels to the potential reduction associated with a variety of policy proposals that would increase eligibility for the program.
This paper employs a microsimulation model containing an eligibility and benefits calculator, participation model, and an optimization algorithm. The results showed that increasing eligibility by relaxing the restrictions of the means tests can be more effective in reducing poverty than raising benefit levels.
Employment options for low-income women: Microenterprise versus the labor market. Social Work Research, 28 2 This study builds on research that examines the effect of microenterprise on poor women in the United States.
Household income, income from the XX business, and poverty status were examined over time and comparisons were drawn among three groups of women: The findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of microenterprise assistance programs as an anti-poverty strategy in the United States.
However, women in the three groups moved out of poverty at the same rate. Policy, program, and practice implications are discussed. Long-term poverty among older women: The effects of work in midlife.
Bryn Mawr CollegePhD. Existing research on links between lifecourse events and later life economic well-being does not tend to emphasize the continuity of poverty and disadvantage among older adults.
This study focuses on long-term economic hardship among older women, examining the effects of work history and other factors on the later life economic well-being of women who had low income in midlife. A sample of 2, women was drawn from the NLSMW, with just over one third of this sample having had income below percent of the poverty line in midlife.
When controlling for other factors which affect later life income, it was found that the amount of work low-income women did in midlife had little effect on their later life economic outcomes, although job characteristics, such as unionization and the availability of fringe benefits, did have a positive effect on later life economic well-being.
For women who had higher income at midlife, however, hours worked in midlife, irrespective of job characteristics, often had a positive impact on later life economic well-being. Difficulties after leaving TANF: Inner-city women talk about reasons for returning to welfare. Social-Work49 2 People who leave welfare commonly return, and this phenomenon has become more pressing in the time-limited Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF program.
Fostering stable TANF exits may be particularly difficult in poor inner-city areas because of job shortages and neighborhood deterioration.
TANF leavers from five focus groups in Chicago give their perspectives about problems leading to welfare return.Affordable Papers is an online writing service which has helped students from the UK, US, and Europe for more than 10 years.
Our great experience enables us to provide papers of the best quality. The main secrets of our good reputation are trustful relationships with customers and talented academic writers who always create first-chop papers from scratch. The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
The term was first used in by English economist John Williamson. Economic Studies No. 27 (August ). Corporate governance, competition and performance. Colin Mayer. The paper gives an overview of the interrelation between corporate governance, product market competition and performance across main "models" of corporate governance in OECD countries.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among caninariojana.comic inequality sometimes refers to income inequality, wealth inequality, or the wealth caninariojana.comists generally focus on economic disparity in three metrics: wealth, income, and consumption.
Is U.S. Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds Robert J. Gordon NBER Working Paper No. August JEL No. D24,E2,E66,J11,J15,O3,O31,O4,Q NBER Working Papers have not undergone the review accorded official NBER publications; in particular, they have not been submitted for approval by the Board of directors.