Reiner 4 Neuroethics 65 Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: However such claims may yield unintended consequences by fostering discrimination commonly associated with pathology.
Read now Health risks Methamphetamine use can lead to a number of other health problems, including dependence, heart problems, and other physical and mental health issues.
Addiction and dependence Both long-term use and withdrawal can have a severe psychological and physical impact.
The drug has a high potential for abuse and dependence. Tolerance develops quickly, and psychological addiction can develop within a relatively short space of time. Methamphetamine is very addictive. This is because a large amount of dopamine remains in the brain cells synapses for long periods of time after use.
The dopamine keeps the cells activated, allowing the user to experience the powerful feelings of euphoria. After a while, the user is unable to produce dopamine naturally and requires the drug to feel normal, needing larger doses to experience feelings of pleasure.
Stopping suddenly does not cause a physical withdrawal, as with heroin. Instead, the person may feel extreme fatigue, mental depressionirritability, apathy, and disorientation. Heart problems and stroke Methamphetamine use increases the risk of heart problems, such as chest pain, abnormal heart rhythm, and high blood pressure.
This can lead to a heart attack, acute aortic dissection, or sudden cardiac death, even after using the drug for the first time. These risks are higher when using the drug with alcohol, cocaine, or opioids.
There is a higher risk of strokepossibly due to elevated blood pressure or faster rate of atherosclerosis. Tooth decay Methamphetamine abuse can also cause tooth decay so severe that most of the teeth either rot, known as "meth mouth," or need extracting.
Causes are thought to include: Researchers have linked amphetamine use to a higher risk of Parkinson's diseasefor example, a condition that affects the nerves of movement.
Toxicity risks for producers Illicit drug manufacturers are called "cooks. Anyone in the area of a methamphetamine laboratory is also at risk of exposure to chemicals, including children. Other risks Other health risks include a higher chance of getting a blood-borne disease, such as hepatitisamong those who inject the drug.
Since the drug is illegally produced and sold, there are no controls over its contents.
There is a risk of toxicity from unknown substances that may be present. The individual's overall health may deteriorate due to a lack of food or a poor diet.
Severe weight loss may occur.Euphoria (/ juː ˈ f ɔːr i ə / ()) is the experience (or affect) of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness. Certain natural rewards and social activities, such as aerobic exercise, laughter, listening to or making music, and dancing, can induce a state of euphoria.
Euphoria is also a symptom of certain neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as mania. Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant. In the brain it mimics a neurotransmitter ("messenger chemical") at serotonin and dopamine receptor sites.
Receptors and neurotransmitters function like a lock (the receptor) and key (the neurotransmitter.). The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience.
The use of methamphetamine is associated with long-term biochemical and structural effects on the brain and significantly changes how the brain functions. The excessive production of dopamine causes neuropathological changes in the brain and has a neurotoxic effect on the brain cells that store dopamine and serotonin.
Methamphetamine alters brain structures involved in decision-making and impairs the ability to suppress habitual behaviors that have become useless or counterproductive. The brain has the consistency of firm jelly, and therefore is protectively encased in a thick, bony skull.
The brain literally floats in about millilitres (mL) of CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) secreted by the choroid plexus. Approximately mL of CSF is secreted daily, which slowly circulates down through the four ventricles, up through the subarachnoid space and exits into the cerebral.