OD was developed for use primarily in business and industrial organizations. OD helps members of an organization solve their own problems. An effective organization has both high productivity and rapid growth.
This includes a thorough study and analysis of both human and material resources in the organization. In looking at the human resources, there is needed to look at the behavioral patterns of employees at work.
This will help an organization to be able to manage its human resources effectively. One of the elements to look at in the analysis of employee behaviour is motivation. Motivation is a key element in organizational behavior because employee needs to be motivated in order to exhibit an attitude or behavior that will help achieve the goals and objectives of the organization and thereby improve performance over time.
This paper will attempt to examine motivation, its definition, theories and how it improves employee performance as a determinant for achieving organizational performance.
It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.
OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively. OB is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited, a company registered in England . Power and Leadership: An Influence Process Fred C. Lunenburg Sam Houston State University A great deal of power people have in organizations comes from the specific jobs or titles they hold (Greenberg, ). In other words, they are able to influence others effectively and were much better able to manipulate groups and people to.
For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action Schater as cited in Wikipedia.
This is the process by which a person wants and chooses to act in a particular way Maund, According to Slocum and Hellriegelmotivation represents the forces acting on or within a person that cause the person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner. It influences the level of performance, the efficiency achieved and the time spent on an activity.
Researchers often contrast intrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, which is motivation governed Motivating individuals and groups in organizations essay reinforcement contingencies.
Traditionally, educators consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable and to result in better learning outcomes than extrinsic motivation Deci, Many modern-day authors have also defined the concept of motivation.
As all cited in the work of James For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. As we can conceive from the above definitions, they all refer to or talk about a stimuli that trigger or spur the motivational process.
Various researches as have been conducted show that internal motivations are preferred in making a person to work towards the achievement of goals. However, external motivations still contribute to drive a person towards the achievement of organizational goals.
Therefore we look at two sources of motivation below: Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however that a person will not seek to rewards; it is just that external rewards are not enough to keep such a person motivated. People who are intrinsically motivated work on task because they find them enjoyable.
Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, group, organization, and social system. rorism on individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis. On the indi- In other words, individuals contribute their motivation and dedication to the advancement of terrorist causes, groups affect the socialization into terrorist ideologies, and organizations deter-. Q1 Explain a content theory of motivation and a process theory of motivation and illustrate how they can explain actions of individuals in the case of study. “The content theory of motivation try to explain specific what are the keys to motivate people at work” (Mullins, L pg Ed tenth) The main theories of content theories are Maslow and Helzberg.
Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. As Deci et al. Furthermore in the work of Deci and Richardintrinsic motivation refers to motivation that source comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards or punishments.
The motivation comes from the pleasure one can get from the task itself, completing the task or just working on a task. Terry defines intrinsic motivation as motivation that stems directly from the act itself, rather than something beyond it. Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract service, the work environment and conditions of work.
According to Nnajiextrinsic motivation, sometimes financial, are the tangible motivations given to employees by managers, such as pay raises, bonuses, and benefits. In contrast, he has it that intrinsic motivations are psychological motivations that employees get from doing meaningful work and performing it well.
Extrinsic motivation played a dominant role in earlier eras, when work was generally more routine and bureaucratic, and when complying with rules and procedures was paramount.
This job offered workers few intrinsic motivations, so that extrinsic motivations were often the only motivational tools available to organizations.
Pay is an important consideration for most workers in accepting a job, and unfair pay can be a strong de-motivator. However, after people have taken a job and issues of unfairness have been settled, we find that extrinsic motivation are now less important, as day-to-day motivation is more strongly driven by intrinsic motivations.
All organizational resources and facilities will get waste in absence of motivated employees to utilize these resources effectively. Every superior in the organization must motivate its subordinates for the right types of behaviour. The performance of human beings in the organization is dependent on the ability embedded in motivation.
Motivation increases the willingness of the workers to work, thus increasing efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. Utilization of resources is possible to its fullest extent employees are induced to contribute their efforts towards attaining organizational goals.
Thus people should be motivated to carry out the plans, policies and programmes laid down by the organization. One can be physically and mentally fit to work, but he may not be willing to work.
Motivation results in feeling of involvement to present his better performance. Thus, motivation bridges the gap between capacity to work and willingness to work. It reduces labour problems like labour turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline.E - MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS.
INTRODUCTION. Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill. THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION IN ORGANISATIONS. Within the organizations this need have the form of employees struggle for safety work, introduction of the seniority system and the organization of trade unions, safe working conditions, side benefits, the insurance and the severance pay (Kreitner, ).
Organizational Behavior – Essay Sample Individual and group behavior is affected by a wide variety of variables, no matter what setting the subjects find themselves in. Within an organization, there are many levels that craft behavioral patterns: culture, management techniques, human psychology and individual communication all contribute to the development of organizational behavior.
Organizational Linkages: Understanding the Productivity Paradox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / Thus, whether changes are introduced at the individual, group, or organizational level, they must contribute to organizational productivity for the bonus system to pay off.
The key idea is that there are many. Start studying Organizational Behavior, Chapter 5 - Motivation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Oct 23, · [Essay] "Some students like to work in groups with other students when doing assignments and If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above.
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