Are kids illogical, impulsive, or just trying to please?
Return to Contents Perception refers to the process of taking in, organizing, and interpreting sensory information. Perception is multimodal, with multiple sensory inputs contributing to motor responses Bertenthal Gross motor actions include the movement of large limbs or the whole body, as in walking.
Fine motor behaviors include the use of fingers to grasp and manipulate objects. Motor behaviors such as reaching, touching, and grasping are forms of exploratory activity Adolph As infants develop increasing motor competence, they use perceptual information to inform their choices about which motor actions to take Adolph and Joh For example, they may adjust their crawling or walking in response to the rigidity, slipperiness, or slant of surfaces Adolph Motor movements, including movements of the eyes, arms, legs, and hands, provide most of the perceptual information infants receive Adolph and Berger As infants grow, their body fat and muscle mass are redistributed.
This dramatic physical development occurs within the broad context of overall development. As infants master each challenge, their perceptual and motor behavior reflects their ever-present interpersonal orientation and social environment.
The extent and variety of infant perceptual and motor behavior are remarkable. Infants and toddlers spend a significant part of their days engaged in motor behavior of one type or another.
By three and a half months of age, infants have made between three and six million eye movements during their waking hours Haith, Hazen, and Goodman Infants who crawl and walk have been found to spend roughly half of their waking hours involved in motor behavior, approximately five to six hours per day Adolph and Joh They travel over nearly a dozen different indoor and outdoor surfaces varying in friction, rigidity and texture.
Early research in motor development involved detailed observational studies that documented the progression of infant motor skills and presented an understanding of infant motor behavior as Motor development in children essay sequence of universal, biologically programmed steps Adolph and Berger ; Bertenthal and Boker ; Bushnell and Boudreau ; Pick In comparison, current research in motor development often emphasizes action in the context of behavior and development in the perceptual, cognitive, and social domains Pick In particular, contemporary accounts of infant motor development address 1 the strong relationship between perception and action Bertenthal ; Gibson ; Thelen2 the relationship between actions and the environment Gibson ; Thelenand 3 the importance of motives in motor behavior, notably social and explorative motives von Hofsten Children whose disabilities affect their perceptual or motor development still want to explore and interact with the people and environment around them.
Pioneering researchers in infant motor development used novel and painstaking methods to study the progression of infant skill acquisition Adolph and Berger ; Adolph Their findings were presented for both professionals and the public in the form of milestone charts that depicted motor skill acquisition as a clear progression through a series of predictable stages related to chronological age Adolph ; Adolph, Weise, and Marin More recent research in the area of perceptual and motor development has indicated substantial variability between children in the pathways to acquiring major motor milestones such as sitting and walking Adolph ; Adolph Each child may take a unique developmental pathway toward attainment of major motor milestones Adolph and Joh Crawling, for example, is not a universal stage.
Research clearly shows that not all children crawl before they walk Adolph Although most children walk independently around age one, the normal range for acquisition of this behavior in western cultures is very broad, between 9 and 17 months of age Adolph Age has traditionally been treated as the primary predictor of when landmark motor behaviors occur, but studies now indicate that experience may be a stronger predictor than age is in the emergence of both crawling Adolph and Joh and walking Adolph, Vereijken, and Shrout It is important to recognize that, though developmental charts may show motor development unfolding in the form of a smooth upward progression toward mastery, the development of individual children often does not follow a smooth upward trajectory.
Infant motor development can be understood as a process in which change occurs as the infant actively adapts to varying circumstances and new tasks Thelen Thelen demonstrated this experimentally in her well-known study in which three-month-old babies, still too young to coordinate their movements to be able to sit, reach, or crawl, learned to coordinate their kicks in order to engage in the novel task of making a mobile move.
For years, researchers, educators, and early childhood professionals have emphasized the interrelatedness of the developmental domains. The current research supports an even greater appreciation of the profound role of interrelatedness and interdependence of factors, domains, and processes in development Diamond The developmental domains are linked not only with one another, but also with factors such as culture, social relationships, experience, physical health, mental health, and brain functioning Diamond In the case of perceptual and motor behavior, Diamond has observed that perception, motor behavior, and cognition occur in the context of culture, emotion, social relationships, and experience, which in turn influence physical and mental health as well as overall brain functioning.
Bertenthal has proposed that perception and motor action are interrelated rather than autonomous processes.
They may be best viewed as different components of an action system. Common behaviors such as reaching and turning the head for visual tracking illustrate the interrelatedness of the motor, perceptual, cognitive, and social-emotional domains in infant development.
Even as very young infants, children are highly motivated to explore, gain information, attend, and engage their physical and social environments Gibson As Gibson5 explains: Infants use perception to distinguish features of the environment, such as height, depth, and color.Swaddling is an age-old practice of wrapping infants in blankets or similar cloths so that movement of the limbs is tightly restricted.
Swaddling bands were often used to further restrict the infant. Swaddling fell out of favor in the 17th century. Some authors are of the opinion that swaddling is becoming popular again, although medical and psychological opinion on the effects of swaddling is.
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This chapter provides a synthesis of recent research in motor development.
Motor behavior encompasses everything that we do, and therefore is relevant to every branch of psychological science. Our aim is to address central concepts and children develop in a physical environment, and learn-ing by doing involves exploration of the environment.
Essay on Physical and Motor Development. Length: words (4 double-spaced pages) Rating: Strong Essays. It is important to objectively study physical and motor development in children to gain knowledge on what characteristics are considered typical for each age and stage of development.
This will enable me to be aware of when a .