Short essay on policy making in the federal system that is cross current between national state and

Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.

Short essay on policy making in the federal system that is cross current between national state and

Conclusion INTRODUCTION The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe India is the largest and Indonesia comes third and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world.

This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful.

There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation.

It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and American history. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the American government.

I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. So I hope that this explanation helps But this is a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system.

This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago.

The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King George III at the time or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers.

Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of power by the other arms. The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and a population of varied background and education.

Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in public opinion.

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So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths.

The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations.

The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states.

This is why today six states have only one member in the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government it is described first in the Constitution but, over time, both the Presidency starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War and the Supreme Court especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion have assumed more power.

Lifting the Veil

The Declaration of Independence of and the Constitution of form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government.

Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and one of the the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments the constitutions of Jordan, Libya and Iceland are the shortest in the world running to a mere 2, words.

As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in almost years.

Short essay on policy making in the federal system that is cross current between national state and

In fact, famously the 27th Amendment took over years to achieve ratification, having been originally proposed at the same time as the 10 that make up the Bill of Rights but having only reached ratification in The last new and substantive amendment - reduction of the voting age to 18 - was inalmost half a century ago.

One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change. First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress.

Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit. This was first written inshortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from until it was finally passed in It was then sent to each state for ratification but, byit was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution.

Various attempts since to revive the amendment have all failed. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change.

So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life.

The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the - super power.

Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means.

There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution.

Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution.

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It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws which is the realm of the legislative branch but only to uphold them.Short Essay – Policy-making in the Federal System The U.S.

government's expansive role in public policy is caught in a swirl of conflicting cross-currents. On the one hand, popular expectations about government's responsibility to solve problems often exceed the capacity of state and local authorities to respond effectively.

Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.

The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period; European exploration period from to ; the Spanish colonial period, to ; the Mexican period, to ; and United States statehood, from September 9, (in Compromise of ) which continues to this present day..

California was settled from .

The Vietnam War

Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.

A dynamic and pivotal force within the global political economy which shows a definite interplay between politics and economics is the country of China; a country whose political system is primarily that of a communist state.

Incredible. You are a very talented writer and I completely agree with you. You bring up a VERY good point.

British political system