Spanish conquest of south america

Columbus then offered his services in leading such an explatory voyage to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of what later became Spain. Queen Isabella in after the defeat of the last Muslim stronghold in Spain agreed to finance such a voyage and named Columbus as the admiral, viceroy and governor of any lands he should find. The fleet then sailed to the northeast coast of Cuba and turned to eastward to the island of Hispanola, which now contains the countries of Haiti and the Bominican Republic. There Columbus lost his flagship, the Santa Maria.

Spanish conquest of south america

However, Spain maintained, and even enlarged, its vast American empire until the early nineteenth century, and maintained its Asia-Pacific territories until Spanish participation in the Scramble for Africa was negligible: Spanish Morocco was held until and Spanish Guinea and the Spanish Sahara were held until and respectively.

On the one hand, the Spanish empire was often exploitative and culturally destructive.

Emergence of the Maya

On the other hand, it also did much to create cultural and linguistic links across the globe, helping to nurture consciousness that in the end all humans occupy a single planetary home, which, if not kept healthy and sustainable, will become our common grave. Spanish explores and explorers in her service helped humanity realize that the world is one by mapping and charting its seas and continents.

During the last years of the Reconquista era, the Castilian monarchy, tolerated the small Moorish taifa client-kingdom of Granada in the south-east by exacting tributes of goldthe parias, and, in so doing, ensuring that gold from the Niger region of Africa entered Europe.

The conquest of Canary Islands, inhabited by Guanche people, was only finished when the own armies of the Crown of Castille won in long and bloody wars, the islands of Gran CanariaLa Palma and Tenerife The marriage of the Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile created a confederation of reigns, each with their own administrations, but ruled by a common monarchy.

InSpain drove out the last Moorish Spanish conquest of south america of Granada. After their victory, the Spanish monarchs negotiated with Christopher Columbusa Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.

Columbus instead "inadvertently" discovered America, inaugurating the Spanish colonization of the continent. The Indies were reserved for Castile. The claim of Spain to these lands was solidified by the Inter caetera papal bull ofand by the immediately following Treaty of Tordesillas ofin which the globe was divided into two hemispheres between Spanish and Portuguese claims.

These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from Alaska to Cape Horn except Brazilas well as the easternmost parts of Asia.

The Castilian Empire was the result of a period of rapid colonial expansion into the New World, as well as the Philippines and colonies in Africa: Melilla was captured by Castile in and Oran in Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Milan —to which he held a dynastic claim—and Navarre.

The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and inFrance agreed to a truce that left Milan in her control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarre. Upon the settlement of Hispanola which was successful in the early s, the colonists began searching elsewhere to begin new settlements.

Those from the less prosperous Hispaniola were eager to search for new success in a new settlement. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. The coastal villages and towns of Spain, Italy and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa, the Formentera was even temporarily left by its population and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants.

The most famous corsair was the Turkish Barbarossa "Redbeard". According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1. Thus this Empire was constituted from the inheritance of territories, and not through conquest. After his defeat of the Castilian rebels in the Castilian War of the Communities, Charles became the most powerful man in Europe, his rule stretching over an empire in Europe unrivalled in extent until the Napoleonic era.

It was often said during this time that it was the empire on which the sun never set. This sprawling empire of the Spanish Golden Age was controlled, not from distant inland Madrid, but from Seville. Commercially this Castilian Empire abroad was initially a disappointment.

It did stimulate some trade and industry. Ultimately, however, these imports diverted investment away from other forms industry and contributed to inflation in Spain in the last decades of the sixteenth century. This situation was aggravated but nothing like as much as popular myth asserts by the loss of many from the commercial and artisan classes with the expulsions of the Jews and Moriscos.

The vast imports of silver ultimately made Spain overly dependent on foreign sources of raw materials and manufactured goods. The wealthy preferred to invest their fortunes in public debt juroswhich were backed by these silver imports, rather than in production of manufactures and the improvement of agriculture.

This helped perpetuate the medieval aristocratic prejudice that saw manual work as dishonorable long after this attitude had started to decline in other west European countries. The silver and gold whose circulation helped facilitate the economic and social revolutions taking place in the Low Countries, France and England and other parts of Europe helped stifle them in Spain.

The problems caused by inflation were discussed by scholars at the School of Salamanca and arbitristas but they had no impact on the Habsburg government.

The Habsburg dynasty squandered the American and Castilian riches in wars across Europe for Habsburg interests, defaulted on their debt several times, and left Spain bankrupt with the tensions between the Empire and the people of Castile exploding in the popular rebellion of the Castilian War of the Communities — The Habsburg political goals were several: Access to American goldsilversugar and Asian products porcelain, spicessilk Undermining the power of France and containing it in its eastern borders.

Charles attempted to quell the Protestant Reformation at the Diet of Worms but Luther refused to recant his heresy.

Spanish conquest of south america

Defending Europe against Islamnotably the Ottoman Empire.The Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire (–21) which was the base for later conquests of other regions.

Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. Spain led European global exploration and colonial expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

American History, Page 1, Spanish Conquest of Native America

Trade flourished across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Toppling the Aztec and Inca civilizations, Spain laid claim to vast territories in North and South Spanish Empire became the foremost global power, dominating the .

The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military skirmishes, The long-term effects of the arrival of the Spanish on the population of South America were simply catastrophic.

While this is the case for every group. SAN JOSÉ STATE UNIVERSITY ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT Thayer Watkins.

America, Spanish conquest | South African History Online

The Spanish and Portuguese Conquest of the Americas. In Christopher Columbus tried unsuccessfully to interest King John II of Portugal in . The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the years of preliminary exploration and military skirmishes, Spanish soldiers under conquistador Francisco Pizarro, his brothers, and their native allies captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa in the Battle of .

History of Spanish Immigration to America in the 's: The Hart-Cellar Act The last significant wave of Spanish Immigration to America started in with the passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the Hart-Celler Act.

Spanish Conquest